Biochemistry & Clinical Pathology Notes PDF Download​

Chapter 1​

Introduction to biochemistry: Scope of biochemistry in pharmacy; Cell and its biochemical organization.

Chapter 2​

Definition, classification with examples, chemical properties
Monosaccharides – Structure of glucose, fructose, and galactose
Disaccharides – structure of maltose, lactose, and sucrose
Polysaccharides – chemical nature of starch and glycogen
Qualitative tests and biological role of carbohydrates

Chapter 3​

Definition, classification of proteins based on composition and solubility with examples
Definition, classification of amino acids based on chemical nature and nutritional requirements with examples
Structure of proteins (four levels of organization of protein structure)
Qualitative tests and biological role of proteins and amino acids
Diseases related to malnutrition of proteins

Chapter 4​

Definition, classification with examples
Structure and properties of triglycerides (oils and fats)
Fatty acid classification – Based on chemical and nutritional requirements with examples
Structure and functions of cholesterol in the body
Lipoproteins – types, composition and functions in the body
Qualitative tests and functions of lipids

Chapter 5​

Nucleic acids
Definition, purine and pyrimidine bases
Components of nucleosides and nucleotides with examples
Structure of DNA (Watson and Crick model), RNA and their functions

Chapter 6​

Definition, properties and IUB and MB classification
Factors affecting enzyme activity
Mechanism of action of enzymes, Enzyme inhibitors
Therapeutic and pharmaceutical importance of enzymes

Chapter 7​

Definition and classification with examples
Sources, chemical nature, functions, coenzyme form, recommended dietary requirements, deficiency
diseases of fat-and water-soluble vitamins

Chapter 8​

Metabolism (Study of cycle/pathways without chemical structures)
Metabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis, TCA cycle
and glycogen metabolism, regulation of blood glucose
level. Diseases related to abnormal metabolism of
Metabolism of lipids: Lipolysis, β-oxidation of Fatty acid
(Palmitic acid) ketogenesis and ketolysis. Diseases
related to abnormal metabolism of lipids such as
Ketoacidosis, Fatty liver, Hypercholesterolemia
Metabolism of Amino acids (Proteins): General
reactions of amino acids and its significance–
Transamination, deamination, Urea cycle and
decarboxylation. Diseases related to abnormal
metabolism of amino acids, Disorders of ammonia
metabolism, phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria and
Biological oxidation: Electron transport chain
and Oxidative phosphorylation

Chapter 9​

Minerals: Types, Functions, Deficiency diseases,
recommended dietary requirements

Chapter 10​

Water and Electrolytes
Distribution, functions of water in the body
Water turnover and balance
Electrolyte composition of the body fluids, Dietary intake of electrolyte and Electrolyte balance
Dehydration, causes of dehydration and oral rehydration therapy

Chapter 11​

Introduction to Biotechnology

Chapter 12​

Organ function tests
Functions of kidney and routinely performed tests to
assess the functions of kidney and their clinical
Functions of liver and routinely performed tests to
assess the functions of liver and their clinical
Lipid profile tests and its clinical significances

Chapter 13​

Introduction to Pathology of Blood and Urine
Lymphocytes and Platelets, their role in health and disease
Erythrocytes – Abnormal cells and their significance
Normal and Abnormal constituents of Urine and theirsignificance